Investigations into Physiological Effects of Compression and Device Optimization began as early as 1991. These studies set out to assess the physiological effects of intermittent pneumatic compression and to determine the optimal parameters for increasing arterial blood flow to the lower extremities:  timing, patient positioning, air bladder dimensions, pressure, and so on. Over time, ACI Medical made adjustments to the ArtAssist ® device with the sole purpose of maximizing arterial blood flow to the tissue.

After numerous investigations at multiple academic and clinical centers, the engineers at ACI Medical incorporated these important factors of increasing flow to the ArtAssist® device:

  • Rapid sequential compression and decompression (under 0.5 seconds)
  • Patient in an upright sitting position
  • Large air bladders encompassing the foot, ankle and calf
  • 120 mmHg compression

More recent studies are attempting to determine the physiological effects and possible clinical benefits for patients with special needs.

Recommended reading:

Intermittent Claudication

After having observed how intermittent pneumatic compression therapy with the  ArtAssist® device increased arterial blood flow, researchers progressed to studying what benefits could be gained by claudicants. Three published randomized controlled trials at separate institutions were performed with the ArtAssist® device for patients suffering from walking pain.

Researchers found that overall, ankle brachial indices (ABI) and walking distances (doubling and tripling) were both markedly improved and were sustained long after ArtAssist® device therapy stopped.

Recommended reading:

Limb Salvage & CLI

After having observed the claudicants’ sustained benefits after stopping therapy, investigators began to look into the idea of treating threatened limbs (critical limb ischemia) with the ArtAssist® device. Many of the limbs chosen for these studies had been previously scheduled for amputation, but a high percentage of them were salvaged.

In three independent clinical trials (one of which was randomized controlled), critically ischemic limbs unsuitable for surgical revascularization saw limb salvage rates of 86-94%.

Recommended reading:

Arteriogenesis

After having come to the conclusion that the ArtAssist® device was efficacious for limb salvage and long-term benefits, researchers took a closer look at why patients did not tend to regress towards poor circulation. They discovered evidence that, over a period of at least 90 days, ArtAssist® device therapy induced the formation of small collateral bypass arteries (arteriogenesis or collateralization).

Recommended reading:

Full List of References

ArtAssist ®…The Arterial Assist Device®

* indicates use of another device

  1. Augmentation of Blood Flow in Limbs with Occlusive Arterial Disease by Intermittent Calf Compression” van Bemmelen, Mattos, Faught, Mansour, Barkmeier, Hodgson, Ramsey and Sumner. Springfield, IL. J of Vasc Surg 1994; 19:1052-8.
  2. Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Therapy in Patients with Leg Ischemia” Banga, Idzerda, Schuurman and Eikelboom. Vascular Center, Academic Hospital, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Presented at the 17th World Congress International Union of Angiology, London; April 1995
  3. Intermittent Calf and Foot Compression Increases Lower Extremity Blood FlowEze, A.R.; Comerota, A.J.; Cisek, P.L.; Holland, B.S.; Kerr, R.P.; Veeramasuneni, R.; and Comerota, A.J. Jr.  Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA USA. Presented at the 24th Annual meeting of the Society for Clinical Vascular Surgery; March 1996. Am J Surg 1996; 172:130-135. 
  4. Acute Effects of Intermittent Pneumatic Foot and Calf Compression on Lower Limb Venous Hemodynamics” Labropoulos, N.; Buckman, J.; Size, G.; and Wightman, R.  Vascular Diagnostics, Ltd., Parkridge, IL; Division of Surgery, Loyola Medical Center, Maywood, IL. Presented at the Society of Vascular Technology 20th Annual Conference, San Francisco, CA; July 1997.  
  5. Intermittent Foot and Calf Compression: Effects on Arterial Blood Flow and Value in the Treatment of Intermittent Claudication” Nicolaides, A.N. and Delis K. Presented at the 24th Annual Symposium on Current Critical Problems, New Horizons and Techniques in Vascular and Endovascular Surgery; November 1997.  
  6. Intermittent Pneumatic Foot and Calf Compression: Determining Its Optimal Effect on Venous Haemodynamics Using Direct Pressure Monitoring Delis, K.; Zainal, A.A.; Stevens, R.J.G.; Otah, K.E.; Ibegbuna, V.; and Nicolaides, A.N. Imperial School of Medicine, St Mary’s Hospital, London UK. Presented at the the American Venous Forum 10th Annual Meeting; Feb 1998. 
  7. Improving Popliteal Artery Flow with Intermittent Pneumatic Foot and Calf Compression”  Delis, K.; Labropoulos, N.; Nicolaides, A.N.; Stansby, G.; and Lumley, J. Irvine Laboratory for Cardiovascular Investigation and Research, Academic Surgical Unit, Imperial College school of Medicine, St Mary’s Hospital, London UK.  
  8. The Contributions of Arterial and Venous Volumes to Increased Cutaneous Blood Flow During Leg Compression Eze, A.R.; Cisek, P.L.; Holland, B.S.; Comerota, A.J. Jr.; Veeramasuneni, R.; and Comerota A.J.  Philadelphia, PA, Charlotte and Gastonia, NC. Annals of Vascular Surgery, 1998; 12:182-186.  
  9. Acute Effects of Intermittent Pneumatic Compression on Popliteal Artery Blood Flow  Labropoulos, N.; Watson, W.C.; Ashraf Mansour, M.; Kang, S.S.; Littooy, F.N.; Baker, W.H. The Department of Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL. Arch Surg. 1998; 133:1072-1075.  
  10. Intermittent Foot and Calf Compression. A Novel Way to Treat Intermittent Claudication  Nicolaides, A.N. Imperial College School of Medicine, St Mary’s Hospital, London UK. 41st Presented at the Annual Congress of the International College of Angiology, Sapporo, Japan; July 1999.  
  11. Case Study and Literature Review: Treatment of Non-healing Lower Extremity Ulceration with a New Form of Progressive, Rapid, Pneumatic Compression Shebel, N.D.; Amundsen D.; and Arkans E. General Surgery/Section of Vascular Surgery, Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Panorama City, CA.  
  12. Optimum Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Stimulus for Lower-limb Venous Emptying  Delis, K.T.; Azizi, A.A.; Stevens, R.J.G.; Wolfe, J.H.N. and Nicolaides, A.N. Irvine Lab for Cardiovascular Investigation and Research Academic Vascular Surgery, Imperial College School of Medicine, St Mary’s Hospital, London, U.K. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 19, 261-269 (2000).
    A. “Determining the Optimum Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Stimulus for Lower Limb Venous Emptying Using Direct Pressure Measurements” Dr. Zainal Ariffin bin Azizi. Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment for the degree of Masters of Science in Vascular Technology and Vascular Medicine. 1995/96. University of London, Imperial College School of Medicine, St Mary’s Hospital, U.K.
  13. Enhancing Venous Outflow in the Lower Limb with Intermittent Pneumatic Compression. A Comparative Haemodynamic Analysis on Effect of Foot vs. Calf Compression Delis, K.T.; Slimani, G.; Hafez, H.M. and Nicolaides, A.N. Irvine Lab for Cardiovascular Investigation and Research, Academic Vascular Unit, Imperial College School of Medicine, St Mary’s Hospital, London UK. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 19, 250-260 (2000).  
  14. Effect of Posture on Popliteal Artery Hemodynamics Delis, K.T.; Nicolaides, A.N. and Standsby, G. Irvine Lab for Cardiovascular and Investigation and Research, Academic Vascular Surgery, Imperial College School of Medicine, St Mary’s Hospital, London UK. Arch Surg. 2000; 135:265-269.
  15. Rapid Intermittent Compression Increases Skin Circulation in Chronically Ischemic Legs with Infra-popliteal Arterial Obstruction van Bemmelen, P.S.; Weiss-Olmanni, J. and Ricotta, J.J. Div. of Vascular Surgery, State University of New York, Stony Brook. VASA 2000; 29:47-52.
  16. “Pneumatic Limb Compression: A Free Lunch?” Porter, J.M. Division of Vascular Surgery, Oregon Health Sciences University. J Vasc Surg 2000;31:821-2
  17. Improving Walking Ability and Ankle Brachial Pressure Indices in Symptomatic Peripheral Vascular Disease with Intermittent Pneumatic Foot Compression: A Prospective Controlled Study with One-Year Follow-Up Delis, K.; Nicolaides, AN; Wolfe, JHN; and Stansby, G.  Imperial College School of Medicine, St. Mary’s Hospital, London, UK. J Vasc Surg 2000; 31:650-61.
  18. The Acute Effects of Intermittent Pneumatic Foot versus Calf versus Simultaneous Foot and Calf Compression on Popliteal Artery Hemodynamics: A Comparative Study Delis, K.T.; Nicolaides, A.N.; Labropoulos, N.; and Stansby, G. Imperial College School of Medicine, St. Mary’s Hospital, London, UK. J Vasc Surg 2000; 32:284-92.
  19. Enhancing Foot Skin Blood Flow in Patients with Infrainguinal Arterial Bypass Grafting Using Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Husmann, M.J.W.; Delis, K.T.; Lennox, A.F.; Nicolaides, A.N.; Standsby, G. Irvine Laboratory for Cardiovascular Research, St. Mary’s Hospital, London, UK.  Presented at the 21st Conference on Microcirculation, June 2000.
  20. Effect of Intermittent Pneumatic Foot Compression on Popliteal Artery Haemodynamics  Delis, K.T.; Labropoulos, N.; Nicolaides, A.N.; Glenville, B.; and Stansby, G. Imperial College School of Medicine, Academic Vascular Surgery, St. Mary’s Hospital, London, UK. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg, p.270-277, vol.19, no. 3, March 2000. 
  21. Improvement in Walking Ability, Ankle Pressure Indices and Quality of Life in Vascular Claudication Using Intermittent Pneumatic Foot and Calf Compression; A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial with 1 Year Follow-up Delis, K.T.; Nicolaides, A.N.; Cheshire, N.J.W.; and Wolfe, J.H.N.  Academic Vascular Surgery, St. Mary’s Hospital, London, UK. Presented at the the Vascular Surgical Society of Great Britain & Ireland, Nov. 2000, London Arena.
  22. Effects of Intermittent Pneumatic Compression of the Calf and Thigh on Arterial Calf Inflow: A Study of Normals, Claudicants, and Grafted Arteriopaths Delis, K.T.; Husmann, J.W.; Cheshire, N.J.; and Nicolaides, A.N. Imperial College School of Medicine, St. Mary’s Hospital, London, UK.  Surgery; 2000, vol. 129, no. 2, p. 188-195.
  23. The ArtAssist® Device in Chronic Lower Limb Ischemia. A Pilot Study Louridas, G.; Saadia, R.; Spelay, J.; Abdoh, A.; et. al. Sect. of Vas. Surg., Dept. of Surg. and Dept. Of Rehab Medicine, Univ. of Manitoba, St. Boniface Hospital and Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Presented at the Canadian Vascular Society Meeting, Banff, Alberta, Sept. 2000.
  24. Intermittent Pneumatic Foot & Calf Compression in Vascular Claudication: A Randomized Trial Delis, K.T.; Nicolaides, A.N.; Cheshire, N.J.; and Wolfe, J.H. St. Mary’s Hospital Imperial College, London, UK. Presented at the 29th Annual Symposium on Vascular Surgery, Boca Raton, FL, April 2001.
  25. Improvements of the Walking Ability in Intermittent Claudication with Supervised Exercise and Pneumatic Foot and Calf Compression: Preliminary Results at Six Weeks of a Randomized Controlled Study Kakkos, S.; Geroulakos, G.; Nicolaides, A.N.; Standfield, N.  Vascular Unit, Ealing Hospital and Department of Vascular Surgery Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK. Presented at the XI Congress of the Mediterranean League of Angiology and Vascular Surgery, May 30-June 2, 2001, Chios, Greece.
  26. Limb Salvage Using High-Pressure Intermittent Compression Arterial Assist Device in Cases Unsuitable for Surgical Revascularization van Bemmelen, P.; Gitlitz, D.B.; Faruqi, R.M.; Weiss-Olmanni, J.; Brunetti, V.A.; Giron, F.; Ricotta, J.J. Dept of Vascular Surgery and Podiatry, VA Medical Center, Northport, NY; and the Division of Vascular Surgery, State University of New York at Stony Brook. Arch Surg. 2001; 136:1280-1285. 
  27. The ArtAssist® Device in Chronic Lower Limb Ischemia. A Pilot Study Louridas, G.; Saadi, R.; Spelay, J.; et al. Section of Vascular Surgery, the Department of Surgery and the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Manitoba, St. Boniface Hospital and Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Int Angiol 2002; 21:28-35.
  28. Intermittent Pneumatic Compression for the Treatment of Lower Extremity Arterial Disease: A Systematic Review Labropoulos, Nicos; Wierks, Carls; and Suffoletto, Brian. Dept. of Surg., Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL. Vascular Medicine 2002; 7:141-148.
  29. Critical Limb Ischemia Successfully Treated by Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Yoram Moses, MD and Boris Yoffe, MD, FACS. Department of General and Vascular Surgery, Marailai Medical Center, Ashkelon, Israel. IMA; Vol 4, Issue 9: September 2002.
  30. Enhancing Foot Skin Blood Flux in Peripheral Vascular Disease Using Intermittent Pneumatic Compression: Controlled Study on Claudicants and Grafted ArteriopathsDelis, K.T.; Husmann, M.J.W.; Nicolaides, A.N.; Wolfe, J.H.; and Cheshire, N.J. World Journal Surgery, Imperial College School of Medicine, St. Mary’s Hospital, London, UK.
  31. *”Intermittent Compression Pump for Nonhealing Wounds in Patients with Limb Ischemia. The Mayo Clinic Experience (1998-2000) Montori, V.M.; Kavros S.J.; Walsh E.E.; and Rooke T.W.  Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Int Angiol 2002; 2:360-6.  
  32. Angiographic Improvement After Rapid Intermittent Compression Treatment (ArtAssist®) for Small Vessel Obstruction van Bemmelen, P.; Char, D.; Giron F.; and Ricotta J.J. Dept. of Surgery, Div. of Vascular Surgery, State University of New York at Stony Brook, NY. Ann Vasc Surg 2003; 17:224-228.
  33. Acute Effect of Intermittent Foot-Calf Compression on Skin Microcirculation in Patients with Severe Leg Ischemia Ubbink, D.Th., van Iterson, V., Lagarnate, D.A. Department of Vascular Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  34. Intermittent Pneumatic Calf and Foot Compression Improves Walking Distance in Patients with Claudication: Results of a Randomized Study Ramaswami, G.; D’Ayala, M.; Hollier, L.H.; Brem, H.; McElhinney, A.J.  Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, New York Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn, NY, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY, Veterans Administration Hospital, Bronx, NY. Presented at the 32nd Annual Symposium on Vascular Surgery, Rancho Mirage, CA, March 2004.
  35. Haemodynamic Effect of Intermittent Pneumatic Compression of the Leg After Infainguinal Arterial Bypass Grafting Delis, K.; Husmann, M.; Szendro, G.; Peter, N.; Wolfe, J.H.; Mansfield, A.O. Regional Vascular Center, Surgery and Department of Academic Cardiology, St. Mary’s Hospital, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Br J Surg 2004;91:429-34.
  36. Improvement in Walking Ability, Ankle Pressure Indices and Quality of Life in Vascular Claudication Using Intermittent Pneumatic Foot and Calf Compression: A Randomized Controlled Trial Delis, K.T.; Nicolaides, A.N.; Cheshire, N.J.W; Wolfe, J.H.N. St. Mary’s Hospital, London, UK.  Br J Surg, December 2002; Volume 88, Issue 4:605-606.
  37. Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Therapy for Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease  Strejcek, J.; Arkans, E.  Phlebology Digest 2004; Volume 17; Issue 1:5-8.
  38. Improvement of the Walking Ability in Intermittent Claudication with Supervised Exercise and Pneumatic Foot and Calf Compression: Results at Six Months of a Randomized Controlled Trial S Kakkos, G Geroulakos, A Nicolaides.  Vascular Unit, Ealing Hospital and Department of Vascular Surgery Imperial College, London, UK. Presented at the 2004 European Society for Vascular Surgery Annual Meeting.
  39. Effect of Intermittent Pneumatic Compression of Foot and Calf on Walking Distance, Hemodynamics, and Quality of Life in Patients with Arterial Claudication. A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study with 1-Year Follow-Up Konstantinos Delis and Andrew N. Nicolaides. Annals of Surgery March 2005; Volume 241, Number 3:431-4.
  40. Rapid Foot and Calf Compresssion Increases Walking Distance in Patients with Intermittent Claudication; Results of Randomized Study Ramaswami, G.; D’Alaya, M.; Hollier, L.; Deutsch, R.; McElhinney, A.J. Houston, Tex; Brooklyn and Bronx, NY; New Orleans, LA; and San Diego, CA.  J Vasc Surg, May 2005; Volume 41, Number 5:794-801.
  41. Improvement of the Walking Ability in Intermittent Claudication due to Superficial Femoral Artery Occlusion with Supervised Exercise and Pneumatic Foot and Calf Compression: A Randomised Controlled Trial Kakkos, S.K.; Geroulakos, G.; Nicolaides, A.N. Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London U.K. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. August 2005; Volume 30: 164-175.
  42. Hemodynamic Effects of Intermittent Pneumatic Compression in Patients with Critical Limb Ischemia Labropoulos, N.; Leon, L.R.; Bhatti, A.; Melton, S.; Kang, S.S.; Mansour, A.M.; and Borge, M. The Department of Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood IL. Journal of Vascular Surgery. October 2005; Volume 42, Number 4: 710-716.
  43. External Intermittent Compression Increases Collateral Artery Number And Size Following Femoral Artery Occlusion van Bemmelen, P.S.; Choudry, R.; Salvatore, M.D.; Goldenberg, M.; Goldman, B.; and Blebea, J. Temple University, Philadelphia, PA. Presented at the Society For Vascular Surgery Annual Meeting, 2006. VascularWeb, 2006. 
  44. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Limb Salvage Trial Using the ArtAssist Pneumatic Compression Device George Louridas, MD. University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada, 2006.
  45. Non-Operative Active Management of Critical Lower Limb Ischaemia (CLI): Initial Experience Using a Sequential Compression Biomechanical Device (SCBD) for Acute Limb Salvage in CLI Esan, O.; Mahendran, B.; Fahy, A.; Hynes, N.; Tawfink, S.; Zalatel, E.; Sultan, S. Western Vascular Institute, University Hospital Galway, Ireland. 2006.
  46. Popliteal Artery Volume Flow Measurement: A New and Reliable Predictor of Early Patency After Infrainguinal Balloon Angioplasty and Subintimal Dissection Ascher E., MD; Hingorani, A.P., MD; and Marks, N.A., MD, RVT. Maimonides Medical Center, Divison of Vascular Surgery.  J of Vasc Surg, Volume 45, Number 1: 17-24, January 2007. 
  47. Intermittent Pneumatic Compression (IPC) in the Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease (PAOD) – A Useful Tool or Just Another Device? Kalodiki, E. and Giannoukas, A.D. Imperial College, London, UK and Department of Vascular Surgery; University of Thessaly Medical School & University Hospital of Larissa, Greece. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 33, 309-310 (2007).
  48. Long-term Intermittent Compression Increases Arteriographic Collaterals in a Rabbit Model of Femoral Artery Occlusion van Bemmelen, P.S.; Choudry, R.G.; Salvatore, M.D.; Goldenberg, B.I.: and Blebea, J. Dept of Surgery and Pathology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 34, 340-346 (2007).
  49. *Improving Limb Salvage in Critical Ischemia with Intermittent Pneumatic Compression: A Controlled Study with 18-month Follow-Up S.J. Kavros, DPM, K.T. Delis, MD, MS, PhD, FRCSI, EBSQvasc, N.S. Turner, MD, A.E. Voll, RN, D.A. Liedl, RN, P.Gloviczki, MD and T.W. Rooke, MD. Vascular Ulcer and Wound Healing Center, Rochester, Minnesota. Journal of Vascular Surgery 47, 543-549 (2008).
  50. Nonoperative Active Management of Critical Limb Ischemia: Initial Experience Using a Sequential Compression Biomedical Device for Limb Salvage S. Sultan, O. Esan, A. Fahey. Vascular 16, 130-139 (2008).
  51. A Case Report: Evaluation of the Effects of Intermittent Pneumatic Compression for Peripheral Arterial Disease Ogawa, T., MD, PhD; Hoshino, S., MD, PhD; Midorikawa, H., MD, PhD; and Sato, K., MD, PhD. Cardiovascular Center Fukushima Daiichi Hospital, Fukushima, Japan.
  52. Intermittent Pneumatic Compression in the Treatment of Inoperable Patients with Chronic Limb Ischemia  Avrahami, R.; Ciback, G.; Bsharah, B.; and Zelikovski, A.  Dept. of Vasc. Surg., Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petah Tikva, Israel. 
  53. Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Therapy for Chronically Ischemic LegsIshibashi, H.; Ohta, T.; Hosaka, M.; Sugimoto, I.; Nihei, T.; and Kawanishi, J.  Dept of Vasc Surg, Aichi Medical University. 
  54. The Case for Intermittent Pneumatic Compression of the Lower Extremity as a Novel Treatment in Arterial Claudication Delis, K.T., MD, MS, PhD, FRCSI.  Div. of Vasc. Surg., Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Pers Vas Surg Endovasc Ther 17:29-42, 2005.
  55. Duration and Amplitude Decay of Acute Arterial Leg Inflow Enhancement with Intermittent Pneumatic Leg Compression: An Insight into the Implicated Physiologic Mechanisms Konstantinos, D.T. and Knaggs, A.L. St Mary’s Hospital, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK and the Div. of Vasc. Surg., Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. J Vasc Surg 2005;42:717-25.
  56. Integrity of Venoarteriolar Reflex Determines Level of Microvascular Skin Flow Enhancement with Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Husmann, M.; Willenberg, T.; Keo, H.H.; Spring, S.; Kalodiki, E.; and Delis, K.T. Div. of Angiology, University Hospital Bern, Div. of Angiology, University Hopsital Zurich, Dept of Vasc Surg, Athens Med Ctr, Athens, Greece and the Imperial College School of Medicine, Zurich. J Vasc Surg 2008;48:1509-13.
  57. Enhanced Cell Therapy Strategy to Treat Chonic Limb-Threatening Ischemia Eton, D. MD and Yu, H. PhD. Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, Dept of Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami and Miami Veteran’s Administration. J Vasc Surg 2010;52:199-204.
  58. Arteriogenesis: Revascularization of the Severely Ischemic Limb. Poster Presentation” Eton, D. MD. Presented at the University of Chicago Department of Surgery C.B. Huggins Research Symposium, April 9, 2011.
  59. The Results of the Sequential Compression Biomechanical Device in Patients with Critical Limb Ischemia and Nonreconstructible Peripheral Vascular Disease Sultan, S.; Hamada, N.; Soylu, E.; Fahy, A.; Hynes, N.; and Tawfick, W. Dept. Vasc. And Endovasc. Surg., Western Vascular Institute, and Dept. Vasc. And Endovasc. Surg. Galway Clinic, Galway, Ireland. Presented at the 2010 Vascular Annual Meeting of Society for Vascular Surgery, Boston, Mass., June 14, 2010. J Vasc Surg 2011;54:440-7.
  60. Impact of a single session of intermittent pneumatic leg compressions on skeletal muscle and isolated artery gene expression in rats Roseguini, B. T.; Arce-Esquivel, A. A.; Newcomer, S. C.; and Laughlin, M. H. Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011 Dec;301(6)R1658-68. Epub 2011 Sep 28.
  61. Noninvasive Treatment for CLI with a Sequential Compression Device: Does it Work? Sherif Sultan, Hamada N., Tawfick, Fahy A., Soylu E., Hynes N. Presented at the 36th Annual Symposium on Vascular & Endovascular Issues. Veith Symposium, New York, November 2009.
  62. How The ArtAssist Pneumatic Compression Device Can Heal Ulcers From Critical Limb Ischemia and Relieve Rest Pain Noninvasively Nicolaides, A. N. Presented at the 39th Annual Vascular and Endovascular Issues, Techniques and Horizons (VEITHsymposium), November 14-18, 2012, New York City.
  63. Using intermittent pneumatic compression therapy to improve quality of life for symptomatic patients with infrapopliteal diffuse peripheral obstructive disease” Chang ST, Hsu JT, Chu CM, Pan KL, Jang SJ, Lin PC, Hsu HC, Huang KC. Circ J. 2012;76(4):971-6. Epub 2012 Feb 4. Division of Orthopedic Surgery, Chia-Yi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Pu-TZ City, Chai-Yi Hsien, Taiwan.
  64. New Insights into the Physiologic Basis for Intermittent Pneumatic Limb Compression as a Therapeutic Strategy for Peripheral Artery Disease” Ryan D. Sheldon, MS, Bruno T. Roseguini, PhD, M. Harold Laughlin, PhD, and Sean C. Newcomer, PhD. Columbia, Mo; São Paulo, Brazil; and San Marcos, Calif. Journal of Vascular Surgery 2013; 58:1688-96.

ArtAssist® is a registered trademark of ACI Medical, Inc